Transcatheter Arterial Embolization in Patients with Kidney Diseases: an Overview of the Technical Aspects and Clinical Indications

Authors: Romaric Loffroy, MD, Pramod Rao, MD, Byung-Kook Kwak, MD, Shinichi Ota, MD, Ming De Lin, PhD, Eleni Liapi, MD and Jean-Fran├žois Geschwind, MD

Therapeutic embolization is defined as the voluntary occlusion of one or several vessels, and this is achieved by inserting material into the lumen to obtain transient or permanent thrombosis in the downstream vascular bed. There are a number of indications for this approach in urological practice, in particular for the patients with parenchymatous or vascular kidney disease. In this review, we present the different embolization techniques and the principally employed occluding agents, and then we present the principal clinical indications and we discuss other pathologies that may benefit from this non-invasive therapy. The complications, side effects and main precautions associated with this approach are also described.