Imaging of the paediatric paranasal sinuses

Authors: A Ahmed, MB BCh, FCRad (Diag)

Sinus development is a dynamic process in children, and appropriate imaging is necessary to adequately demonstrate pathology in our vulnerable paediatric population. The paediatric paranasal sinuses are affected by a wide spectrum of conditions including congenital abnormalities and inflammatory, traumatic and neoplastic diseases.
The purpose of this review is to illustrate the normal pattern of development and the complex anatomy of the sinuses, which should guide imaging protocols. Common anatomical variations and their clinical relevance are described. The paper also describes the various conditions affecting the paediatric paranasal sinuses, with emphasis on imaging features. The diagnostic algorithm for sinus disease continues to evolve along with advances in imaging modalities, and this review discusses suggested imaging guidelines for sinus imaging in children.