Ventricular Septal Defects: Embryology and Imaging Findings

Authors: Rojas, Carlos Andres MD*; Jaimes, Camilo MD ; Abbara, Suhny MD‡

Ventricular septal defects are the most common congenital abnormality diagnosed in children and the second most common congenital heart condition diagnosed in adults. Depending on their location in the interventricular septum, ventricular septal defects are described as perimembranous, muscular, subarterial, and inflow. Awareness of the embryologic basis of these defects helps understand the anatomy and recognize their typical appearance on imaging. Diagnostic imaging plays a role in the characterization of the defect, identification of associated anomalies, and evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion, all of which contribute to guide treatment.