Brain and Spinal MR Imaging Findings in Mucopolysaccharidoses: A Review

Authors: D.I. Zafeirioua and S.P. Batziosa

MPS represents a group of rare hereditary disorders characterized by multisystem involvement due to intralysosomal GAG accumulation. Among various tissues, both the central and peripheral nervous system are affected in almost all types of the disease. Thus, brain and spinal MR imaging are valuable tools for the assessment of neurologic involvement, and there is evidence that they might be reliable markers demonstrating disease severity and efficacy of treatment options currently used in patients with MPS. We aimed to review the most prominent MR imaging features of patients with MPS, paying attention to the physiopathologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations. Along with the description of neuroimaging findings, existing data in relation to their correlation with the severity of neurologic involvement is discussed, while another topic of great importance is the effect of various therapeutic regimens in the progression of brain and spinal MR imaging alterations. Finally, recent data concerning MR spectroscopy studies in MPS are also critically discussed.