Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Syndromes: Role of Imaging in Screening, Diagnosis, and Management

Authors: Venkata S. Katabathina , Christine O. Menias, Lokesh Khanna, Lauren Murphy, Anil K. Dasyam, Meghan G. Lubner, Srinivasa R. Prasad

Hereditary gastrointestinal (GI) cancer syndromes due to specific germline mutations are characterized by an increased risk of GI tract malignancies, extra–GI tract cancers, and benign abnormalities. These syndromes include Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden syndrome, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, and hereditary pancreatic cancer. Timely identification of the responsible genes will help predict future cancer risks in these patients and their family members. Early detection of cancers is possible with appropriate screening methods; risk-reducing measures will help in cancer prevention. Select malignancies and benign conditions associated with these syndromes have distinctive imaging features that can aid in classifying the syndromes. Imaging also plays a pivotal role in screening and surveillance of patients as well as their at-risk relatives and is invaluable for follow-up of treated malignancies. The American College of Gastroenterology has established specific guidelines for diagnosis and management of hereditary GI cancer syndromes. Knowledge of the imaging features of various pathologic conditions and screening strategies will guide appropriate management of patients and at-risk family members.

©RSNA, 2019

After completing this journal-based SA-CME activity, participants will be able to:

List gastrointestinal (GI) tract and extra–GI tract malignancies and benign pathologic conditions in hereditary GI cancer syndromes.

Describe the imaging features of cancers and other pathologic conditions in hereditary GI cancer syndromes.

Discuss screening and surveillance guidelines for patients and at-risk family members with these syndromes.