Radiomics with artificial intelligence: a practical guide for beginners

Authors: Burak Koçak, Emine Şebnem Durmaz, Ece Ateş, Özgür Kılıçkesmez

Radiomics is a relatively new word for the field of radiology, meaning the extraction of a high
number of quantitative features from medical images. Artificial intelligence (AI) is broadly a set
of advanced computational algorithms that basically learn the patterns in the data provided to
make predictions on unseen data sets. Radiomics can be coupled with AI because of its better capability of handling a massive amount of data compared with the traditional statistical methods.
Together, the primary purpose of these fields is to extract and analyze as much and meaningful
hidden quantitative data as possible to be used in decision support. Nowadays, both radiomics
and AI have been getting attention for their remarkable success in various radiological tasks,
which has been met with anxiety by most of the radiologists due to the fear of replacement by
intelligent machines. Considering ever-developing advances in computational power and availability of large data sets, the marriage of humans and machines in future clinical practice seems
inevitable. Therefore, regardless of their feelings, the radiologists should be familiar with these
concepts. Our goal in this paper was three-fold: first, to familiarize radiologists with the radiomics
and AI; second, to encourage the radiologists to get involved in these ever-developing fields;
and, third, to provide a set of recommendations for good practice in design and assessment of
future works.