Imaging the Endometrium: A Pictorial Essay

Authors: Claudia T. Sadro, MD, FABR, FRCPC

Female gynaecologic conditions arising from the endometrium are common and depend on a woman's age, her menstrual history, and the use of medications such as hormone replacement and tamoxifen. Both benign and malignant conditions affect the endometrium. Benign conditions must be distinguished from malignant and premalignant conditions. The most commonly used imaging modality for evaluating the endometrium is pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and transvaginal techniques. Additional imaging methods include hysterosonography and magnetic resonance imaging. This pictorial essay will review the normal and abnormal appearance of the endometrium and diagnostic algorithms to evaluate abnormal vaginal bleeding and abnormal endometrial thickness.