Clinical Syndromes Associated with Ovarian Neoplasms: A Comprehensive Review

Authors: Alampady Krishna Prasad Shanbhogue, MD; Divya Krishna Prasad Shanbhogue, MBBS; Srinivasa R. Prasad, MD; Venkateswar R. Surabhi, MD; Najla Fasih, FRCR and Christine O. Menias, MD

Functional ovarian neoplasms have unique clinical manifestations related to hormone overproduction and may give rise to a broad spectrum of clinical syndromes. Sex cord–stromal tumors, the most common functional ovarian neoplasms, are associated with either hyperestrogenism (as in granulosa cell tumor and thecoma) or hyperandrogenism (as in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and Leydig cell tumor). Other, less common ovarian neoplasms that may have endocrine or nonendocrine syndromic manifestations include germ cell tumors associated with the excessive production of human chorionic gonadotropin (eg, choriocarcinoma, dysgerminoma), monodermal teratomas (eg, carcinoid tumor, struma ovarii) associated with carcinoid syndrome and hyperthyroidism, and primary epithelial ovarian cancers associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. The application of diagnostic algorithms based on patient demographic information, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and cross-sectional imaging features may help identify ovarian neoplasms in complex clinical settings.